VOXEL-BASED GASEOUS FLUID DYNAMICS

TurbulenceFD’s simulation pipeline implements a voxel-based solver based on the incompressible Navier Stokes equations. That means it uses a voxel grid to describe the volumetric clouds of smoke and fire and solves the equations that describe the motion of fluid on that grid. For each voxel TurbulenceFD calculates the velocity of the fluid as well as several channels to describe properties like temperature, smoke density, amount of fuel, etc. This simulation process produces a voxel grid for each frame, which is cached on disk for use by the Volumetric Renderer.

INTUITIVE WORKFLOW

To setup a fluid simulation, the artist uses any type of geometric object or particle system to paint the sources of smoke, heat, fuel, etc. in space. The flow then carries along these emissions in a physically plausbile way that creates the realistic look of fire, explosions, vapor, clouds, dust and much more.

PULL ALL THE STOPS ON YOUR CPU

The biggest technological challenge in fluid simulation is the handling of the large amounts of data that a sequence of voxel grids requires. That is why TurbulenceFD’s simulation pipeline has been designed from the ground up to optimize performance. This includes a careful selection of efficient numerical methods that provide high accuracy and stability throughout the simulation pipeline. And implementing this pipeline using the latest High Performance Computing technology to optimally exploit Memory Caches, Multi-Core CPUs and advanced vector instruction sets. To the artist this means that more iterations can be run in less time, making the work with fluids more intuitive and productive.

UP TO 12x SPEEDUP ON THE GPU

Yes, twelve times! 10 minutes instead of 2 hours. And there’s a simple reason for that: today’s high-end GPUs have 8-15 times the memory throughput of high-end CPUs. TurbulenceFD exploits that. It features a hybrid CPU/GPU simulation pipeline that achieves enormous speedups. Unlike some GPU based tools, this is not just a stripped down version of the CPU simulation. All features are supported at the same quality. When GPU memory is exceeded, TurbulenceFD switches back to the CPU on-the-fly. This allows you to achieve close to real-time speeds for low resolutions and scale smoothly to high resolutions in the hundreds of millions of voxels. Instead of carefully changing parameters, sending off the simulation job and not seeing the results for hours, fluid simulations can be tweaked in quick iterations with the artist observing the effect of the changes while the simulation is processing.

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PHYSICALLY BASED FIRE SHADER

Getting the colors right is critical when creating believable fire animations. You can design your color gradients manually for full artistic control. If you want realistic fire colors, the process of tweaking the colors directly can be time consuming and tedious, though. So the fire shader simulates realistic high dynamic range fire colors based on the Black Body Radiation model. This model is controlled by only two temperature values. It generates the colors real fire would have at these temperatures. But TurbulenceFD doesn’t stop you there. You may want realistic colors, but need more flexibility to tweak the enormous dynamic range that fire has. Maybe give the reds a boost, compress the dynamic range a little, or just use the generated colors as a starting point to edit the directly again.

MULTIPLE SCATTERING

In a nutshell, Multiple Scattering is Global Illumination for smoke. It’s a way to light smoke more realistically and brighter, since it’s illuminated from all directions. It also allows fire to illuminate smoke from the inside, which is essential for realistic shading of explosions. Unlike many Global Illumination techniques, Multiple Scattering in TurbulenceFD does not add noise and thus works well with for animation. And Multiple Scattering render times in TurbulenceFD are actually affordable. But if you’re in a hurry you can still dial in a compromise between speed and illumination detail.

PARTICLE ADVECTION

The heart of fluid dynamics is the creation of a sequence of velocity fields that describe the complex, characteristic motion of the fluid. You can use TurbulenceFD’s velocity caches to control the movement of particle systems. This allows you to complement the voxel renderer with debris or sparks or just render the particles by themselves.

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ADAPTIVE CONTAINER

TurbulenceFD constantly tries to minimize the volume that needs to be processed in order to save memory and time. The velocity field is analyzed to make sure only those parts of the volume will be clipped that will not affect the flow in subsequent frames. If necessary you can control the sensitivity of the clipping for each fluid channel.

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EMITTERS

Emitters are to fluid simulation what brushes are to painting. If an object is set on fire, it emits heat and a flame. TurbulenceFD lets you use any geometric object or particle system to emit into fluid channels. This gives you the ultimate freedom for shape and animation of your emitters. Working with emitters in TurbulenceFD is like animating the brush strokes that paint the sources of fire, smoke, etc. The fluid simulation then takes your animated emission and creates a physically plausible flow from it.

COLLISION OBJECTS

Letting the fluid flow interact with solid objects is useful in many scenes. From a simple solid floor to vehicles moving through fire and smoke to animated characters on fire. Not only is it necessary to integrate the simulation into an environment, but it creates nice and natural turbulence in the wake of an object. Collision objects can stir up the fluid, wave it to the side or act as an obstacle. TurbulenceFD also supports collision objects with all kinds of complex animation including MDD imports and object controlled by rigid body dynamics.

VIEWPORT PREVIEW

The OpenGL based preview gives you a detailed look at each of the fluid channels in real-time. Several shading modes are supported in the preview. There’s an analytic mode that provides a detailed look at the raw output of the simulation. And there are shaded modes that give you real-time feedback while tweaking the settings of each shader. In addition to the fully 3-dimensional preview modes, you can display a 2D slice of the voxel grid, oriented and positioned anywhere in the volume. This can be thought of as the magnifying glass of the preview modes and it’s comparable to a wireframe view of geometric objects.

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SHADING CURVE EDITOR

The heart of voxel shading are the function curves (f-curves) that re-map values like temperature and density to intensity values used for opacity and color. TurbulenceFD features an f-curve editor that has been specifically designed for voxel based fluid shading. It allows for precise and intuitive control, making it very similar to the workflow of color correction, which many artists are already familiar with. And since the f-curves have to be evaluated billions of times during rendering, a special type of spline curve has been designed for TurbulenceFD that is particularly efficient for voxel rendering.

TURBULENCE MAPPING

Adding procedural noise to the fluid velocity field is a way to get curly flows that look more turbulent and more interesting. The controls work pretty much like a procedural noise shader that is commonly found in texturing tools. However, adding the turbulence uniformly across the whole volume will stir up the core of an explosion just as much as the parts further away from the violent reaction. This doesn’t make much sense. So TurbulenceFD lets you to control where exactly you add curls to your flow using one of the fluid channels and a simple mapping curve. This way turbulence can be added only certain regions like the core of an explosion or the hot part of a flame for example.

VOXEL GRID COMPRESSION

To help cope with the large simulation data, TurbulenceFD features lossless data compression that has specifically been designed for fluid data. It typically reduces voxel data down to about 60% in practice.

IGNITION CONTROL

Controlling how fire is ignited and how fast a flame propagates in TurbulenceFD is just as easy and flexible as painting fluids with emitters. It can be based on any fluid channel, not just temperature. This avoids the balancing act you have to perform if temperature also drives the buoyancy force that let’s the hot gas rise.

UP-RES’ING

Often you work out the simulation at a low or medium resolution that allows for quick iterations. Then, you would want to simply re-simulate at a higher resolution to get the final result. But that may not only add high-res detail but also slightly change the large-scale motion due to the numerical nature of the simulation. Up-Res’ing is a way to keep the exact shape and motion of a low- or medium-res simulation and only add high-res detail to it. It’s also faster than running a full simulation at the same high resolution.

SUB-GRID DETAIL

With Render Time Sub-Grid Detail TurbulenceFD pushes the Up-Res’ing approach even further. Instead of having to run a second pass on your base simulation, you just add the high-res detail to your result at render time. For extreme settings this is not as flexible as Up-Res’ing, but it doesn’t require the additional simulation pass or additional cache memory either.

 

Fume FX 4.0 For Maya 2017

RayFire 1.71 plug-in for Autodesk 3ds Max 2013 – 2018

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Car insurance is cheaper with 9 points than zero no claims

Motorists who are one step away from a driving ban could be paying less for their car insurance than drivers with zero no-claims discount, new research has revealed. Insurances quotes were on average nearly 10 per cent cheaper for a typical UK driver with nine points on their license for speeding or other offences compared to those who have a no-claims discount, according to data from Vantage Leasing. It also found that drivers with six penalty points were cheaper to insure than motorists who had one, two or three years' no-claims bonus. The leasing specialist analysed which motorists are paying the least on their insurance through a number of factors including occupation, make of car and age. New: The study found parking on the road was the cheapest due to rise in keyless car attacks It conducted the research in April 2019 through multiple insurers, using a typical UK male and female driver profile with different variables analysed. The firm created a typical UK driver profile then researched quotes for every parameter (points on licence, no-claims, occupation, where car is parked) through car insurance comparison websites. The typical UK driver was found to be a male, 50 year old sales manager who is married and holds a full UK licence. They rack up on average 15,000 miles per year and the base default was that the typical driver had three points on their licence and five years of no-claims. The quick way and easy to save on car insurance We list our ten tips to find the best car insurance deal below - but for a quick money-saver, you should use a comparison site. If you've not done this before, it could save you hundreds of pounds on a renewal quote. This is a simple and easy way to compare prices and while results will broadly be the same across most comparison sites, they may slightly differ, so it is worth checking a couple. Our recommendations of those to try are > Compare the Market > MoneySupermarket > Confused.com Some insurers don't appear on comparison sites and are worth checking directly. The main two are Direct Line and Aviva. Insurance costs for cars are broken down into car insurance groups, ranging from group one to group fifty with group one the cheapest to insure. When reviewing their results, it also found that a Skoda Fabia was Britain's cheapest group one car to insure with owners paying an average annual quote of £413.67 a year. This was followed closely by the Nissan Micra at £417.25 a year and the Seat Mii, which cost on average £459.03 for annual cover. CHEAPEST CARS TO INSURE Car Average quote 1 SKODA Fabia Petrol 1.0 manual 5dr SE MPI 75 £413.67 2 Nissan Micra 2019 1.0L Manual 5dr VISIA Hatchback £417.25 3 SEAT Mii S 1.0 Manual 3dr S (60) Hatchback £459.03 4 Skoda Citigo Petrol 1.0L Manual 3dr S (60) Hatchback £464.94 5 VW UP Petrol 1.0L Manual 3dr TAKE UP! 60 Hatchback £473.37 6 Chevrolet Spark 1.0L annual 5dr LS Hatchback £489.41 7 Kia Rio 1.2L Manual 5dr 2 Hatchback £491.19 8 Smart FORFOUR PURE Petrol 1.0L £512.14 9 Ford Ka+ 1.2L Manual 5dr STUDIO TI-VCT 70 Hatchback £523.01 10 Hyundai I10 1.0 manual 5dr S Hatchback £567.65 Source: Vantage Leasing A Skoda Fabia has been found as the cheapest car to insure by Vantage Leasing's study Vantage Leasing also looked into common misconceptions about methods to reduce insurance costs, including that parking in a locked garage will give you cheaper premiums than leaving your car on the road or driveway. It found that parking on the road was actually the cheapest option on average, costing nearly 10 per cent less for insurance when compared to leaving a vehicle in a locked garage. Parking on the road was also found to be marginally cheaper than parking on the driveway. Car thefts rose by nine per cent last year, a recent Office for National Statistics report revealed, with much of the rise blamed on the recent spike in keyless car theft tactics. The sharp increase of these thefts, which often use 'transmitter relay' attacks that target cars who have keyless entry systems, could be to blame for lower insurance quotes for cars parked on surrounding roads. A motorists occupation can also have some impact on insurance quotes with the riskiest jobs meaning quotes come in around 20 per cent more expensive than those that are considered safer. Computer programmers are among the cheapest to insure, with their insurance costing on average £553.37 a year. This was closely followed by sales executives at £572.44 a year and bookkeepers also at £572.44. CHEAPEST CAR INSURANCE BY OCCUPATION Occupation Average quote 1 Computer programmer (information technology) £553.37 2 Sales Executive (retailing) £572.44 3 Book-keeper (finance) £572.44 4 Admin officer (retail) £577.22 5 Teacher (education) £592.57 6 Sales assistant (Retail) £613.89 7 Cleaner (cleaning services) £614.46 8 Nurse (health authority) £635.99 9 Care worker (professional NHS) £658.17 10 Catering staff (food store) £659.27 Source: Vantage Leasing However, catering staff are deemed to be among the riskiest, paying over £100 more a year than programmers at £659.27. With regards to age, a typical young driver is impacted harder by driving convictions compared to an older driver with their occupation seeing quotes vary as much as 30 per cent. The average cost of yearly insurance for a typical young driver, which Vantage worked out would be a 21 year old, with nine points is a massive £2,037 whilst for a typical driver, it is £801 - well over a thousand pounds cheaper. Vantage Leasing Managing Director, Rob Walker, said: 'The research is eye-opening, dispelling common myths including that penalty points could spell disaster when it comes to insurance costs. 'We also see how the latest trends in car crime such as keyless theft can impact how insurers view risk – hence why parking on the road at night is often cheaper. 'While the research shows what a typical male or female driver can expect, it doesn't cover every eventuality, and some may find their circumstances produce different results. 'It does, however, provide some intriguing insights into the ever-evolving nature of vehicle insurance.' Medical professionals are most at fault... Another study by Go Compare found that medical professionals have the most at-fault claims. The comparison site analysed over seven million car insurance quotes from its database across the previous 12 months for people with over 1400 professions. It found that paediatricians have the highest rate of at-fault claims with 17 per cent having made one or more claim. Psychiatrists were the second highest with 14 per cent having one or more claim whilst 12.2 per cent of both hospital consultants and surgeons also had one or more claims. Other occupations in the top ten list included museum consultants, transcribers and vicars. Go Compare also looked at the top ten occupations of people who have been found using a device when speeding. Psychoanalysts were the worst culprits with 4.3 per cent getting caught. Dog breeders and pest control were the second and third most guilty parties with 2 per cent of people from both professions being caught in the act. Lee Griffin, founding member of Go Compare, said: 'Your occupation is one of the key considerations used to calculate the cost of your premium. Ultimately, different professions are deemed riskier than others, so the chances are, if you're a footballer or a GP, you're likely to face higher premiums than a priest.'

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